Toxicology - In Vitro
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Oxygen is an important regulator of cell function. Physiologic O2 (or physioxia) is much lower than oxygen levels provided in most cell-based toxicology assays (room air - 21% oxygen). In the body, cells experience a range of tissue O2 levels but they never endure room air: liver (3-9%), brain (1-6%), heart (2-5%), lung (10-13%), skin (1-4%), kidney (1-6%), bone marrow (0.1-7%), vascular (2-5%),and retinal (2-5%).
Oxygen regulates the toxicity response of:
- cardiomyoblasts to acrolein
- hepatocytes to APAP
- airway epithelial cells to CuO nanoparticles
- keratinocytes to PCB 126
- vascular endothelial cells to dihydroartemisinin
- tumor cells to anti-cancer therapy
- neuronal cells
- bone marrow cells to hydroquinone, benzoquinone, and doxorubicin
- renal proximal tubular cells to hydroquinone
Toxicologists are using new tools to culture, handle, and analyze in vitro toxicity assays under biologically relevant conditions. To enhance in vitro-in vivo correlation, the incubator subchamber is an economical option that adds O2 control to CO2 incubators. Handling cells outside the incubator in open BSCs/hoods disrupts the in vivo-like conditions provided in the physioxia chamber. These interruptions diminish assay reproducibility and they are prevented by performing the entire in vitro toxicology workflow under continuous, non-interrupted physiologic conditions. Physioxia workstations combine one or more individually controlled incubators with closed hoods permitting continuous control of assay conditions (O2, CO2, and Temp) during all steps of cell incubation, handling, and analysis.
ProOx C21 & C-Chamber
The physioxic incubator subchamber, ProOx C21 & C-Chamber allows researchers to add O2 control to existing CO2 incubators without increasing the laboratory’s equipment footprint. Use two or more ProOx C21 & C-Chamber oxygen chambers to provide simultaneous control at multiple physiologic O2 levels.
The Xvivo System from BioSpherix Ltd is a physioxic workstation that combines one or more O2 incubators with attachable closed hoods. This provides non-varying physiological oxygen conditions during the entire cell experiment. The Xvivo System may be outfitted with multiple O2 incubators empowering investigators with the ability to perform experiments at multiple, different O2 tensions at the same time. The Xvivo System’s modular physioxia hoods are connected to the incubator chamber(s) to permit cell handling under the same conditions found in the incubator.
Plate Readers, Real-time Imagers, & Cell Analyzers
Enclose platforms like:
- ACEA xCELLigence
- Agilent Seahorse
- Sartorius IncuCyte
The Xvivo System’s modular physiologic oxygen hoods enclose 3rd-party instruments in order that well plates may be read, imaged, and analyzed under the same conditions found in the incubator.