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Physiologic Oxygen / Physioxia

Deepen your understanding of how physioxia affects cell function and scientific reproducibility below. Oxygen is an important modulator of cell function yet most in vitro research occurs under Supraphysiologic levels (ambient air – 21% O2) that misrepresent the in vivo tissue setting and lead to irrelevant results. Normal tissue oxygen levels are far below those found in air and the often misused term ‘hypoxia’ should be reserved only for reporting pathologically low oxygen. The Term ‘physioxia’ is used more frequently to describe biologically relevant tissue O2 levels. Oxygen affects cell function in many ways:

  • metabolic activity
  • proliferation rate
  • differentiation / dedifferentiation
  • gene expression
  • cell cycle / DNA replication integrity
  • stress response
  • homeostatic capacity
  • redox state
  • signaling cascades
  • implantation
  • simulate physiological cellular O2 levels

Default Room Oxygen adds ROS Artifact to Cell Culture.

New tools are available for incubation, handling, and analysis of cell cultures under full-time physiologically relevant oxygen levels (physioxia). Upgrade CO2 incubators with O2-controlled subchambers. Since brief interruptions of physioxia affect scientific reproducibility, physiologic oxygen workstations (or glove boxes) increase data consistency through constant control of O2, CO2, and Temp during every step of the cell experiment.

Cell Equipment

ProOx C21 & C-Chamber

Cell Research – physiologic oxygen, chamber, physioxia chamber with static control of O2 and CO2ProOx C21 & C-Chamber

OxyCycler C42 & C-Chamber

Cell Research – physiologic oxygen chamber(s), physioxia chamber(s) with dynamic control of O2 and CO2OxyCycler C42 & C-Chambers

Xvivo System

Cell Research – physiologic oxygen incubator and hood system, physioxia workstation, physioxia glove box with independently programmable control of O2, CO2, and Temperature in one (or more) modular incubator chamber(s) and/or cell handling chamber(s) – Xvivo System

Discover More

Blog Posts

CytoCentric Blog – What Oxygen Level Should I Use for My Cells In Vitro?

CytoCentric Blog – The Biology of HIF Proteins Impacts the Outcome of Your Experiments in Physiologic Oxygen

CytoCentric Blog – What Oxygen Level Does My Cell Culture Actually Experience?

CytoCentric Blog – Oxygen Terminology


*new* Interview with Cytocentric Visionary: Dr. Sandeep Raha from McMaster University – Physiologic O2 for In Vitro Placental Research Reveals New Understanding

LabRoots – Cell Biology Virtual Event 2018, “Fighting Against Air: Physiologic Oxygen and Reproducibility

BioSpherix – Avoid Irrelevant Non-Reproducible Data, The Neglected Variable: Physiologic Oxygen


Brochure – Tips for Planning, Executing and Reporting In Vitro studies at Physiologically Relevant Oxygen Levels


*new* Wong, Michael K et al. , Establishment of an in vitro placental barrier model cultured under physiologically relevant oxygen levels. Molecular human reproduction vol. 26,5 (2020): 353-365. doi:10.1093/molehr/gaaa018.

Al-Ani A., et al., Oxygenation in cell culture: Critical parameters for reproducibility are routinely not reported., PLoS One. 2018 Oct 16;13(10):e0204269.

Stuart JA., How Supraphysiological Oxygen Levels in Standard Cell Culture Affect Oxygen-Consuming Reactions., Oxid Med Cell Longev., 2018 Sep 30;2018:8238459.

Ferguson DCJ., et al., Altered cellular redox homeostasis and redox responses under standard oxygen cell culture conditions versus physioxia., Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Oct;126:322-333.

Bordt EA., The importance of controlling in vitro oxygen tension to accurately model in vivo neurophysiology., Neurotoxicology. 2018 May;66:213-220.

Jagannathan L., et al., Oxidative stress under ambient and physiological oxygen tension in tissue culture., Curr Pharmacol Rep. 2016 Apr;2(2):64-72.

Carreau A., et al., Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia., J Cell Mol Med. 2011 Jun;15(6):1239-53.

Lab References

Physiologic Oxygen at University of Virginia

Physiologic Oxygen at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute

Physiologic Oxygen at SUNY Upstate Medical University

Physiologic Oxygen at RESTORE (Toulouse)