Oxygen is an important physiological parameter in healthy neural tissues. Levels range 1-6% O2 in neurons and glial cells and are never at the 21% O2 (room air oxygen) present in most cell-based neuroscience. Since oxygen modulates neural cell function, use of physiologic oxygen (or physioxia) during in vitro experiments is helpful for adding physiological relevance.

Oxygen regulates:

Pathological oxygen levels (hypoxia or hyperoxia) are used for modeling many types of neural diseases and disorders: Alzheimer's Disease, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), brain ischemia, stroke, ischemia-reperfusion, oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), neurodegeneration, gliomas (including glioblastoma), neuroplasticity, sleep apnea, and neurodevelopmental disorders, Elevated CO2 (hypercapnia) is commonly used in anxiety models.