Unlike any other cell type, immune cells traverse blood, lymph, and tissues, and so, they are uniquely exposed to all of the different oxygen levels in the body (physioxia).
Ischemic injury and tumors can produce oxygen levels that are particularly low (hypoxia). None of these in vivo environments compare to room air oxygen, which is where most immunological assays are performed. That is an essential disconnect between in vitro and in vivo Immunology, contributing to problems with Reproducibility and Translatability of findings.
Evidence is accumulating that oxygen and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) affect immune cell function in profound ways.
- Oxygen affects T cell differentiation – subtypes and function
- Oxygen affects B cell migration
- NK , macrophage, and dendritic cells use ROS functionally
- Oxygen is a critical part of hematopoietic bone marrow niche physiology as well as germinal center physiology
- Oxygen affects immunomodulation by MSC
- Immunometabolism is a rapidly expanding field where the role of oxygen is being understood.
It is possible to control in vitro environments to the proper oxygen level for culturing cells as well as handling cells.
OxyCycler C42 & C-Chamber
Cell Research - physioxia/hypoxia workstation, combined oxygen incubator and hood system, in vitro oxygen/hypoxia glove box, with independently programmable control of O2, CO2, and Temp in one (or more) modular incubator chamber and/or hood chambers - Xvivo System